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Enzymatic self-wiring in nanopores and its application in direct electron transfer biofuel cells

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Abstract

A synthetic enzymatic activity in nanopores leading to the direct fabrication of modified electrodes applicable as biosensors and/or biofuel cell elements is reported. We demonstrate the heterogeneous enzymatic implanting of platinum nanoclusters, PtNCs, in glucose oxidase, GOx, immobilized on mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, MPCNP-modified surface. As the pores confine the growth of the clusters, the PtNC@GOx/MPCNP assembly becomes electrically wired to the matrix, demonstrating direct electron transfer, DET, bioelectrocatalytic properties that correlate with the applied duration of synthesis and cluster size. This inside-out nanocluster growth from the cofactor to the matrix is investigated and further compared to a reversed outside-in strategy which follows the electrochemical deposition of the Pt clusters inside the pores and their electrically induced expansion towards the FAD center of the enzyme. While the inside-out and outside-in methodologies provide, for the first time, synthetic bidirectional direct wiring routes of an enzyme to a surface, we highlight an asymmetry in the wiring efficiency associated with the different assemblies. The results indicate the existence of a shorter gap between the FAD cofactor and the PtNCs in the enzymatically implanted assembly, resulting in elevated bioelectrocatalytic currents, lower overpotential, and a higher turnover rate, 2580 e s−1. The implanted assembly is then coupled to a bilirubin oxidase-adsorbed MPCNP cathode to yield an all-DET biofuel cell. Due to the superior electrical contact of the inside-out-synthesized anode, this cell demonstrates enhanced discharge potential and power outputs as compared to similar systems employing electrochemically synthesized outside-in-grown PtNC-GOx/MPCNPs or even GOx-modified MPCNPs diffusionally mediated by ferrocenemethanol.

Graphical abstract: Enzymatic self-wiring in nanopores and its application in direct electron transfer biofuel cells

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Publication details

The article was received on 28 Aug 2018, accepted on 05 Sep 2018 and first published on 06 Sep 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8NA00177D
Citation: Nanoscale Adv., 2019, Advance Article
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    Enzymatic self-wiring in nanopores and its application in direct electron transfer biofuel cells

    A. Trifonov, A. Stemmer and R. Tel-Vered, Nanoscale Adv., 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8NA00177D

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