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Recent advances in arsenic metabolism in plants: current status, challenges and highlighted biotechnological intervention to reduce grain arsenic in rice

Abstract

Arsenic (As), classified as a "Metalloid" element, is well known for its carcinogenicity and other toxic effects to human. Arsenic exposure in plants results in alteration of physiochemical and biological properties, consequently loss of crop yield. Being a staple food for half of the world’s population, subsequent consumption of As-contaminated rice grain by the human may pose serious health issues and risk for food security. Our study describes the principal understanding of the molecular basis of arsenic toxicity and accumulation in plant parts. We describe the measures to decrease As accumulation in rice and to understand the mechanism and transport of As uptake, its transport from root to shoot to rice grain, its metabolism, detoxification as well as the mechanisms lying behind its accumulation in rice grain. There are various checkpoints which can be targeted to reduce As accumulation in rice grain such as tuning of AsV/Pi specific Pi transporters, arsenate reductase, transporters which are involved in efflux of As to either vacuole or outside the cell, xylem loading, loading and unloading to phloem and finally transporters involved in the loading of As to grain are also good choice to reduce As accumulation. Genes/protein involved in As detoxification particularly glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis pathway, phytochelatin (PC) synthesis, and arsenic methyltransferase also provide a great pool of pathways that can also be castellated for the low As in rice grains. Paddy rice is also used as fodder for the animal, enhancing vacuolar sequestration and using constitutive promoter may be a concern for the animal health. Therefore, using root-specific promoter and/or converting inorganic arsenic to volatile organic arsenic might be a better strategy for low As in grain. Furthermore, in this review, the other specific approach such as bio-remediation, bio-augmentation practices, and molecular breeding which have great

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 Nov 2018, accepted on 07 Jan 2019 and first published on 08 Jan 2019


Article type: Minireview
DOI: 10.1039/C8MT00320C
Citation: Metallomics, 2019, Accepted Manuscript
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    Recent advances in arsenic metabolism in plants: current status, challenges and highlighted biotechnological intervention to reduce grain arsenic in rice

    M. Shri, P. K. Singh, M. Kidwai, N. Gautam, S. Dubey, G. Verma and D. Chakrabarty, Metallomics, 2019, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8MT00320C

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