A neutrophil membrane-functionalized black phosphorus riding inflammatory signal for positive feedback and multimode cancer therapy†
This study proposed a positive feedback strategy for cancer therapy, which amplified the target signal by consistent priming of the tumor microenvironment during therapy to enhance the therapeutic efficiency during continuous treatment. Black phosphorus (BP) nanoflakes cooperated with the transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitor and were coated with the neutrophil (NE) membrane. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) by BP induced acute local inflammation in the tumor and improved the accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in subsequent administration by NE membrane-mediated affinity. PDT and PTT combined with the TGF-β inhibitor also induced potent immune activation in the tumor and effectively inhibited lung metastasis. The results indicated that the positive feedback strategy benefited the combination therapy, showing enhanced antitumor efficiency than non-positive feedback NPs.