IFN-γ-induced signal-on fluorescence aptasensors: from hybridization chain reaction amplification to 3D optical fiber sensing interface towards a deployable device for cytokine sensing
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a proinflammatory cytokine, has been used as an early indicator of multiple infectious diseases or tumors. In order to explore the detection capability of a commonly used anti-IFN-γ aptamer, a simple target induced strand-displacement aptasensing strategy was tested by introducing three different complementary strands and two different signal/quencher pairs. The Texas red/BHQ2-based sensor showed the best affinity constant (Kd) of 21.87 ng mL−1. It was found that the strand-displacement aptasensing strategy was impacted by the complementary position and length of the complementary strands. Additionally, the hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification strategy was introduced, yielding a 12-fold improved sensitivity of 0.45 ng mL−1. In order to further explore the sensing platform for spatially localized cytokine detection, the Texas red/BHQ2-based strand-displacement aptasensor was successfully fabricated on the 3D optical fiber surface to achieve a deployable sensing device for monitoring IFN-γ based on the fluorescence spots counting strategy. Finally, the three developed aptasensing strategies (strand-displacement strategy, HCR amplification strategy, 3D optical fiber aptasensor) were applied for detection of IFN-γ secreted by PBMCs with comparable results to those of ELISA. The deployable 3D optical fiber aptasensor with the superior sensitivity is potential to be used for detection of spatially localized IFN-γ in vivo.