Synthesis of new lophine–carbohydrate hybrids as cholinesterase inhibitors: cytotoxicity evaluation and molecular modeling†
In this study, we synthesized nine novel hybrids derived from D-xylose, D-ribose, and D-galactose sugars connected by a methylene chain with lophine. The compounds were synthesized by a four-component reaction to afford the substituted imidazole moiety, followed by the displacement reaction between sugar derivatives with an appropriate N-alkylamino-lophine. All the compounds were found to be the potent and selective inhibitors of BuChE activity in mouse serum, with compound 9a (a D-galactose derivative) being the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 0.17 μM). According to the molecular modeling results, all the compounds indicated that the lophine moiety existed at the bottom of the BuChE cavity and formed a T-stacking interaction with Trp231, a residue accessible exclusively in the BuChE cavity. Noteworthily, only one compound exhibited activity against AChE (8b; IC50 = 2.75 μM). Moreover, the in silico ADME predictions indicated that all the hybrids formulated in this study were drug-likely, orally available, and able to reach the CNS. Further, in vitro studies demonstrated that the two most potent compounds against BuChE (8b and 9a) had no cytotoxic effects in the Vero (kidney), HepG2 (hepatic), and C6 (astroglial) cell lines.