Scaffold Hybridization Strategy towards potent hydroxamate-based inhibitors of Flaviviridae viruses and Trypanosoma species
Infections with Flaviviridae viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue virus (DENV) pose global health threats. Infected individuals are at risk of developing chronic liver failure or haemorrhagic fever respectively, often with a fatal outcome if left untreated. Diseases caused by tropical parasites of the Trypanosoma species, T. brucei and T. cruzi, constitute significant socioeconomic burden in sub-Saharan Africa and continental Latin America, yet drug development is under-funded. Anti-HCV chemotherapy is associated with severe side effects and high cost, while Dengue has no clinically approved therapy and antiparasitic drugs are outdated and difficult to administer. Moreover, drug resistance is an emerging concern. Consequently, the need for new revolutionary chemotherapies is urgent. By utilizing a molecular framework combination approach, we combined two distinct chemical entities with proven antiviral and trypanocidal activity into a novel hybrid scaffold attached by an acetohydroxamic acid group (CH2CONHOH), aiming at derivatives with dual activity. The novel spiro-carbocyclic substituted hydantoin analogues were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potency against three HCV genotypes (1b, 3a, 4a), DENV and two Trypanosoma species (T. brucei, T. cruzi). They exhibited significant EC50 values and remarkable selectivity indices. Several modifications were undertaken to further explore the structure activity relationships (SARs) and confirm the pivotal role of the acetohydroxamic acid metal binding group.