Kaolin alleviates the toxicity of graphene oxide for mammalian cells†
The development of novel nanoscale vehicles for drug delivery promotes the growth of interest in investigations of interaction between nanomaterials. In this paper, we report the in vitro studies of eukaryotic cell physiological response to incubation with graphene oxide and planar kaolin nanoclay. Graphene family materials, including graphene oxide (GO), hold promise for numerous applications due to their unique electronic properties. However, graphene oxide reveals toxicity to some cell lines through an unidentified mechanism. Thus, methods and agents reducing the toxicity of graphene oxide can widen its practical application. We used a colorimetric test, flow cytometry and cell index assay methods to evaluate the effects of separate and combined application of graphene oxide and kaolin on mammalian cells. We have shown that the joint application of graphene oxide and kaolin reduced the negative effects of graphene by almost 20%, most likely because of coagulation of the nanoparticles with each other, which was detected by atomic force microscopy.