Convergent production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid from biomass and CO2
We report a rationally designed process for complete lignocellulose conversion and CO2 utilization to convergently produce 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) that can be used in bioplastics and resins. The phenolic motif of the lignin structure enables the assembly of metal–lignin hybrids to fabricate a single-atom cobalt over nitrogen-doped carbon (Co SAs/N@C) catalyst. The Co SAs/N@C catalyst exhibits outstanding performances in the transformation of carbohydrate-based hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural into FDCA and furoate, respectively. Importantly, during the furfural oxidation, Cs2CO3 is used as a base additive, which can also promote the carboxylation of the 5 position C–H of furoate in the subsequent reaction to give the desired FDCA using CO2 as the C1 source.