Food-borne nanocarriers from roast beef patties for iron delivery†
Food-borne nanoparticles (FNs) produced during thermal processing of food may have potential as nanocarriers for Fe(II) supplements. In this paper, the FNs in beef patties roasted for different times (15, 30, and 45 minutes) and the binding between FNs and ferrous ions were studied. The size of FNs decreased from 7.5 to 3.0 nm with the increase of baking time, and the FNs emitted bright blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light irradiation. The combination of FNs with ferrous ions was by means of the amino, hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups on the particles. Cell viability study showed that the Fe(II)-FNs increased the apoptotic rate, but significantly decreased the necrosis rate, which led to an increase in the number of living cells. In addition, the Fe(II)-FNs can easily enter the Caco-2 cytoplasm, but not the cellular nucleus. The FNs derived from beef patties with an ultra-small size, high water solubility and plenty of functional groups might be good candidates as nanocarriers for Fe(II) delivery.