Fermented ginseng improved alcohol liver injury in association with changes in the gut microbiota of mice
The interactions among the liver, intestine and immune system play an important role in alcoholic liver injury. In this study, C57BL/6N alcoholic injury mice were treated with un-fermented or Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3 fermented ginseng. Indicators of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. The valuable counts of beneficial and harmful bacteria in mice ileum and colon were counted by traditional method. The diversity analysis and PICRUSt human disease predicted of cecum flora were performed. Alcohol exposure increased the ALT, AST, TNF-α and IL-6 inflammatory factors and liver steatosis. In addition, alcohol-fed declined the number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in ileum and colon. Cecum flora diversity of mice showed that alcohol-induced obviously enhanced the Unclassified S24-7 of the Bacteroidetes phylum and the Proteobacteria genus of the Sutterella phylum, and reduced the abundance of short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria Akkermansia in the Verrucomicrobia phylum and the Allobaculum genus, the Rumincoccus genus, the Adlercreutzia genus in the Actinobacteria phylum. All these changes are improved by fermented ginseng. Conclusively, fermented ginseng can alleviate alcoholic liver injury and disorder of intestinal flora, and prevent alcohol-induced metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases by adjusting intestinal flora.