Glycated fish protein supplementation modulated gut microbiota composition and reduced inflammation but increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products in high-fat diet fed rats
This study firstly investigated how the intake level of glycated fish protein (GP), enriched with Amadori products, affects gut health by modified the fermentation of gut microbiota and advanced glycated end-product (AGEs) accumulation in rats fed high-fat diet. The hyperlipidemic rats were fed fish protein (FP) control diet, 6% low-level GP (L-GP) diet, and 12% high-level GP (H-GP) diet for four weeks. The intake level of GP, affected by its AGE level, greatly changed the pattern of protein fermentation, reduced inflammation markers and blood lipids, but increased AGE plasma accumulation and fecal excretions, when compared with FP diet. Furthermore, the GP supplementation significantly decreased Ruminiclostridium_6 and Desulfovibrio (p<0.05), and L-GP diet showed more effects for the increase of butyrate–producing Ruminococcus_1 and Roseburia, while H-GP diet considerably decreased Helicobacter and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. The correlation-type principal-component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated the relationships between the potentially biological effects of GP and the modulation of gut microbiota composition and fermentation metabolites profiles. The intake of low-level glycated fish protein may have a more beneficial effect on gut health.