Investigation on the allergen profile of the soluble fraction of autoclaved peanuts and its interaction with Caco-2 cells
Peanut is a source of proteins and fats but is also considered a harmful food for allergic individuals due to its ability to trigger severe and life-threatening reactions. Strict avoidance of peanuts is the most effective means to prevent the development of an allergic reaction. Physical or chemical strategies employing autoclaving can represent a valid alternative to produce a final food with a decreased allergenic power as the case of peanuts. Thermal processing might induce protein modifications in foods and affect protein digestibility or absorption of nutrients across the intestinal mucosa. Besides, the type of processing could also alter food proteins allergenicity thus influencing the interplay with the biological system at the gut level. In this paper, we investigated the influence of autoclaving based treatments on the proliferation of epithelial cells at the intestinal level. Extractable proteins of raw and autoclaved peanuts were analysed by SDS-PAGE and untargeted LC-high resolution-MS/MS to investigate on peptide composition. Our findings show that when raw peanuts were assayed on Caco 2 cell lines, an antiproliferative effect was observed. Conversely, peanuts submitted to hydration and autoclaving did not show any inhibition of proliferation on Caco-2 cells, whereas a decrease in the CD23 protein levels was highlighted. In parallel, an extensive fragmentation induced by autoclaving treatments on the original peanuts proteins was also recorded as assessed by LC-MS/MS analysis with a consequent increase in the number of total peptides detected. In parallel, an extensive fragmentation induced by autoclaving treatments on the original peanuts proteins was also recorded by LC-MS/MS analysis with a consequent increase in the number of peptides detected. These results indicate that the type of processing applied to peanuts can impact peptide profile as well as the proliferative activities of intestinal cells and the levels of CD23 proteins turning interesting, in perspective, from an allergological point of view.