Isoleucine attenuates infection induced by E. coli challenge through the modulation of intestinal endogenous antimicrobial peptide expression and the inhibition of the increase in plasma endotoxin and IL-6 in weaned pigs
Enteric infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. Immunotherapy against intestinal infection is a well-known alternative to the antibiotic strategy. Herein, we demonstrated that isoleucine significantly suppressed the multiplication of E. coli in the presence of IPEC-J2 cells. Isoleucine supplementation enhanced the concentrations of total plasma protein and IgA in pigs compared to the alanine control diet, while inhibiting the increase in plasma endotoxin and IL-6 contents induced by E. coli challenge. A significant interaction between the E. coli challenge and the diet treatment was found in the red blood cell volume. Isoleucine improved the expression of porcine β-defensin-1 (pBD-1), pBD-2, pBD-3, pBD-114 and pBD-129 in the jejunum and ileum of pigs with or without E. coli challenge. Conclusively, isoleucine attenuated the infection caused by the E. coli challenge possibly through increasing the intestinal β-defensin expression and inhibiting the increase in plasma endotoxin and IL-6 in weaned pigs.