Effect of a balanced nutrition meal replacement diet with altered macromolecular composition along with caloric restriction on body weight control
The prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic syndrome (MetS) has shown an upsurge in recent years due to modified lifestyle patterns. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of a nutritionally balanced conventional meal replacement diet with modified macromolecular composition (rich in soy/pea protein and soluble fibers) and caloric restriction on Taiwanese obese subjects. Obese subjects (BMI > 27; n = 50, male 23, female 27) were recruited and requested to replace two meals per day (breakfast and lunch or dinner) with the balanced nutritional meal replacement diet (equal to 240 kcal) for 8 weeks with one regular meal and make sure that the daily target calorie limit (caloric restriction) was less than 1500 kcal day−1 for men and 1200 kcal day−1 for women. After eight weeks of intervention with a calorie-restricted balanced partial meal replacement diet, the levels of body weight, body fat, and waist circumference were significantly reduced by 4.1 kg, 2.38%, and 5.06 cm, respectively. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels after 8 weeks of intervention with the meal replacement diet. Moreover, the levels of insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cardiovascular risk factors were significantly attenuated (p < 0.05). To conclude, the present intervention with meal replacement and caloric restriction on obese subjects could concomitantly decrease the body weight and glycemic and cardiovascular risk factors and thereby lower the risk of various metabolic disorders.