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Issue 2, 2019
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Extrusion of apple pomace increases antioxidant activity upon in vitro digestion

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Apple pomace, a by-product of juice production, is a high-fibre, high-polyphenol functional food ingredient. Extrusion (barrel moisture 15%, 20% or 30%) of apple pomace, followed by drying, allows it to be supplied in a convenient form. Extrusion caused degradation of the apple pomace cell wall structure. Water solubility was significantly increased by extrusion but oil holding capacity was reduced. Total extractable polyphenols, measured as gallic acid equivalents, were reduced by extrusion (barrel moisture 30%) but were not affected by extrusion at lower barrel moisture contents (15% or 20%). However, individual sub-groups of extractable flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and dihydrochalcones were increased by extrusion. There was little effect of extrusion on the release of total polyphenols from the matrix into the supernatant, as measured by total extractable polyphenols (measured as gallic acid equivalents) released during in vitro digestion. There was a marked increase in total flavanols, phenolic acids and dihydrochalones released into the supernatant during the gastric phase but changes in flavonoids were less obvious. The changes in the bioaccessibility of individual polyphenols released during intestinal digestion were dependent on the type of polyphenol and extrusion conditions. The antioxidant activity, as measured using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the bioaccessible nutrients released upon in vitro intestinal digestion, was significantly enhanced by extrusion (from 78.2 to 400–500 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL at the ileal phase). The increased ORAC may be attributed in part to the increased release of individual polyphenols.

Graphical abstract: Extrusion of apple pomace increases antioxidant activity upon in vitro digestion

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The article was received on 31 May 2018, accepted on 14 Jan 2019 and first published on 18 Jan 2019

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8FO01083H
Citation: Food Funct., 2019,10, 951-963

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    Extrusion of apple pomace increases antioxidant activity upon in vitro digestion

    G. Liu, D. Ying, B. Guo, L. J. Cheng, B. May, T. Bird, L. Sanguansri, Y. Cao and M. Augustin, Food Funct., 2019, 10, 951
    DOI: 10.1039/C8FO01083H

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