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Issue 4, 2019
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Comparing industrial and domestic discharges as sources of N-nitrosamines and their chloramine or ozone-reactive precursors

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Abstract

There have been few measurements of the concentrations of N-nitrosamines and their chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive precursors in domestic and industrial sewage discharges contributing to municipal wastewater plants. This study measured the concentrations of 8 N-nitrosamines and their chloramine- and ozone-reactive precursors in 8 samples of primary municipal wastewater effluent, 6 composite samples of domestic and commercial sewage, 5 discharges from metal finishing or electronics-related facilities, 3 discharges from manufacturers of cosmetics and personal care products, 1 brewery discharge and 1 elastic waistband manufacturing discharge. NDMA and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most frequently detected N-nitrosamines. Domestic/commercial sewage accounted for the median NDMA concentrations measured in primary effluent after chloramination (48 ng L−1) or ozonation (78 ng L−1). Domestic/commercial sewage and discharges from metal finishing and electronics-related facilities (1760 ng L−1 median NDMA concentration) each accounted for ∼25% of the 28 ng L−1 median NDMA concentration measured in primary effluent, even though the metal finishing/electronics facilities accounted for only 0.25% of the sewage flow. Domestic/commercial and industrial discharges did not account for the 30 ng L−1 median NMOR concentration in primary effluent, indicating the need to further characterize NMOR sources. Other N-nitrosamines and their precursors were rarely detected except in metal finishing/electronics discharges.

Graphical abstract: Comparing industrial and domestic discharges as sources of N-nitrosamines and their chloramine or ozone-reactive precursors

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
20 Dec 2018
Accepted
19 Feb 2019
First published
21 Feb 2019

Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2019,5, 726-736
Article type
Paper

Comparing industrial and domestic discharges as sources of N-nitrosamines and their chloramine or ozone-reactive precursors

Y. Chuang, F. Shabani, J. Munoz, R. Aflaki, S. D. Hammond and W. A. Mitch, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2019, 5, 726
DOI: 10.1039/C8EW00942B

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