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High-performance water desalination of heteroatom nitrogen- and sulfur-codoped open hollow tubular porous carbon electrodes via capacitive deionization

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Abstract

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a competent technique for water desalination on account of its low energy consumption, easy operation and environmental friendliness. In this work, heteroatom nitrogen- and sulfur-codoped open hollow tubular porous carbon (N,S-HTPC) with a hierarchical porous tube wall and high specific surface area (1412 m2 g−1) has been successfully fabricated via a facile MnO2-nanorod template method, in which LB agar coupled with β-cyclodextrin hydrogel (LB agar@β-CD hydrogel) was employed as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur sources. The obtained N,S-HTPC possessed a unique open hollow tubular structure with micropores–mesopores distributed in the tube wall and excellent N, S doping properties. The open hollow tubular structure of N,S-HTPC electrodes could guarantee unimpeded ion diffusion inside the carbon tubes, and the micro-/mesopores in the tube wall provided sufficient diffusion pathways and more adsorption sites for ion transport and capture. In addition, the incorporation of N and S in the carbon matrix resulted in excellent charge and ion transportation ability and excellent conductivity and hydrophilicity. Compared with open hollow tubular porous carbon (HTPC) and N, S co-doped porous carbon (N,S-PC), N,S-HTPC displayed a remarkable capacitive deionization behavior with a high electrosorption capacity (12.05 mg g−1) at 1.2 V in a 25 mg L−1 NaCl solution. The heteroatom co-doped hierarchical porous carbon with unique channels, low energy consumption and stable regeneration performance has provided great potential for the development of high-performance CDI.

Graphical abstract: High-performance water desalination of heteroatom nitrogen- and sulfur-codoped open hollow tubular porous carbon electrodes via capacitive deionization

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 Jul 2019, accepted on 24 Sep 2019 and first published on 25 Sep 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C9EN00794F
Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2019, Advance Article

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    High-performance water desalination of heteroatom nitrogen- and sulfur-codoped open hollow tubular porous carbon electrodes via capacitive deionization

    Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, D. Xia, L. Hu, P. Li, L. Tan, Y. Wang, C. He, D. Shu and X. Xie, Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9EN00794F

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