Evaluation of labeling methods used for investigating the environmental behavior and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles
The analysis of the environmental behavior and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) is complicated by high metal concentrations in natural matrices. To better detect and quantify MONPs in complex samples, a variety of traceable labels can be incorporated. There are four primary categories of MONP labels: fluorescent dyes, radioisotopes, stable isotopes, and dopant/core–shell labels. This review describes each MONP labeling technique, along with its advantages and drawbacks, and provides strategies for choosing the most appropriate labeling method for a given study design.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Environmental Science: Nano Recent Review Articles