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Issue 3, 2019
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Occurrence, levels and profiles of brominated flame retardants in daily-use consumer products on the Chinese market

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Abstract

With the global phasing-out of POP-BFRs (brominated flame retardants restricted under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants), the main challenge for their environmentally sound management has shifted from manufacturing and consumption to their recycling and disposal. For the end-of-life products containing POP-BFRs, material recycling and reuse in new articles is the favorite approach widely adopted by recyclers. This would result in POP-BFRs being transferred into daily-use consumer products. To identify the possible reservoirs of POP-BFRs in consumer products on the Chinese market, 120 samples were screened for Br by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, and the three traditional BFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), were analyzed in 15 Br-positive samples. The results showed that 36.7% of products contained at least one test point positive for Br, and higher detection frequencies were found in electric appliances and toys. The concentrations of ∑BFRs ranged from 0.48 to 73.82 mg kg−1 with a general contribution in the order of ∑PBDEs > TBBPA > HBCD. BDE-209 was the dominant congener among PBDEs in most investigated samples, accounting for 48.18–99.36%. Relatively high proportions of the more bioaccumulative and toxic substances of lower brominated PBDE congeners and α-HBCD in products may increase the adverse impacts on the environment and human health. The obtained results will be helpful to understand the downstream flow of POP-BFRs with great significance to the control on their unintended contamination in daily life.

Graphical abstract: Occurrence, levels and profiles of brominated flame retardants in daily-use consumer products on the Chinese market

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Oct 2018, accepted on 07 Jan 2019 and first published on 08 Jan 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00483H
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2019,21, 446-455

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    Occurrence, levels and profiles of brominated flame retardants in daily-use consumer products on the Chinese market

    Y. Li, Q. Chang, H. Duan, Y. Liu, J. Zhang and J. Li, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2019, 21, 446
    DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00483H

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