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Chloride Transport in Conductive Polymer Films for an n-Type Thermoelectric Platform

Abstract

The Cl− transport in conductive polymer (CP) film was demonstrated for n-type thermoelectric (TE) harvesting. CPs have been considered as an important group of p-type TE materials due to their high TE functionalities plus simple processing steps for a device. In particular, recently emerging p-type ionic CPs could be unique candidates due to their high Seebeck coefficients (S). However, n-type materials based on CPs suffer from very poor TE functionalities and n-type ionic TE CP materials have not been realized so far. Here, we report the first example of n-type mixed ionic−electronic CP composite (NPC) films. The p-type nature of the PEDOT:PSS films was drastically converted into n-type nature in the presence of CuCl2 through metal binding with polymers and thus formation of Cl− channels. A fluorescence imaging using as a Cl− indicator and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry mapping confirmed that Cl− transports in the film from hot to cold electrode. In addition, electron spin resonance spectrum indicated major spin density transition from a polaron of the PEDOT:PSS to the polymer bound unpair electron spin of Cu ion by increasing CuCl2 content, to prove the binding of metal ions with PSS unit of the polymer chain. These mixed ionic−electronic NPC films recorded a surprisingly high negative S of over −18.2 mV K−1 and a power factor of 1.7 mW m−1 K−2 at 80% RH with 40 wt% of CuCl2. Taking advantage of this high performance, the CP films were integrated with a p-type CP film as a flexible module-type TE harvester with 10 pairs of p-n legs on CNT electrodes. This TE harvester showed 1.55 V of thermovoltage for a low temperature gradient of 4.5 K. This high anion transport in a TE CP hydrogel film might be a useful solution for environmentally benign and body-worn electronics.

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Jul 2019, accepted on 06 Nov 2019 and first published on 08 Nov 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C9EE02399B
Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, Accepted Manuscript
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    Chloride Transport in Conductive Polymer Films for an n-Type Thermoelectric Platform

    B. Kim, J. U. Hwang and E. Kim, Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C9EE02399B

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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