Rational design of two-dimensional nanomaterials for lithium–sulfur batteries
The inherent technical challenges of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have arisen from the intrinsic redox electrochemistry occurring on the Li and S electrodes, which can significantly deteriorate the S utilization and life cycle. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials composed of atomic or near-atomic thickness with infinite lateral dimensions have been proven to be meritorious as emerging materials for energy storage applications due to their unique structures, remarkable physical properties, and tunable surface chemistry. Herein, we argue that surface functionalization or heteroatom doping of 2D materials, hybridization with other nanostructured materials (0D quantum dots, 1D nanotubes/nanowires, and other 2D nanosheets), and finally architecting into 3D structures along with the advantages of 2D building blocks can open up new opportunities for Li–S batteries. We also focus on the future directions of Li–S batteries in the design of S cathodes and separators utilizing the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of 2D nanomaterials.