Exploring competitive features of stationary sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage
Owing to the excellent abundance and availability of sodium reserves, sodium ion batteries (NIBs) show great promise for meeting the material supply and cost demands of large-scale energy storage systems (ESSs) used for the application of renewable energy sources and smart grids. However, the cost advantages of stationary NIBs alone are not enough to ensure their commercial success. In this review, we summarize the emerging attractive characteristics of stationary NIBs, such as high-rate capability, all-climate operation, and full-battery recyclability. Together with inherent cost advantages, these merits have resulted in an excellent compatibility between stationary NIBs and large-scale ESSs that dictates their validity in practical applications. Representative electrode materials are highlighted to illustrate advances in corresponding features. The insights presented in this review can inspire further research interest into NIB design and serve as a guide for the application of NIBs in large-scale stationary energy storage.