Prospects of production technologies and manufacturing costs of oxide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries†
All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) based on oxide solid electrolytes are promising future candidates for safer batteries with high energy density. In order to estimate the future manufacturing cost for oxide based ASSBs, a systematic identification and evaluation of technologies in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) production has been carried out. Based on a requirements analysis, these technologies are assessed towards their applicability in the production of ASSBs. The most promising technologies are compared by technology readiness using Monte-Carlo simulations. The comprehensive overview and systematic analysis of production scenarios for oxide-based ASSBs reveals significant advantages of established wet coating technologies, such as tape casting and screen printing. However, emerging technologies, such as the aerosol deposition method, could render the high temperature sintering step void. By comparison with SOFC production and adopting learning rates from conventional battery production, an estimation for the manufacturing cost of a garnet-based ASSB is given, indicating that prices below 150 $ kW−1 h−1 at the cell level (incl. housing) are conceivable if the material cost for the garnet solid electrolyte can be pushed below 60 $ kg−1. Based on these findings, scenarios for the scale-up from laboratory research to industrial scale can be derived, paving the way to mass production of safer batteries with high energy density.