Knock-on synthesis of tritopic calixpyrrole host for enhanced anion interactions
Interactions of anionic guests with a tritopic peripherally functionalized conjugated calixpyrrole host (1) prepared using a regioselective synthetic method is reported. The regioselectivity of synthesis relies on selective N-alkylation of the calixpyrrole caused by peripheral substitution of one pyrrole group with subsequent N-alkylation at the opposing pyrrole group termed by us ‘knock-on’ regioselectivity. The resulting host molecule exhibits anion interactions with common chloride and nitrate anions enhanced by an order of magnitude over the parent conjugated calixpyrrole. Combined analysis of 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic titration data enabled an evaluation of binding strengths of anions with the host KA in a binding model where the salt dissociation process is also incorporated in the form of its dissociation constant Kd. Anions could be classified as two types based on their interactions with 1: Type A anions (chloride, nitrate, perchlorate, hydrogensulphate) associate as 1 : 1 complexes through hydrogen bonding while interactions involving Type B anions (acetate, fluoride, dihydrogenphosphate) are complicated by host deprotonation and/or countercation association. Hosts based on rim-functionalized calixpyrroles such as 1 represent a promising new family of chromophores for estimation of biologically relevant anions or other species.