Palladium doping of In2O3 towards a general and selective catalytic hydrogenation of amides to amines and alcohols†
Herein, the first general heterogeneous catalytic protocol for the hydrogenation of primary, secondary and tertiary amides to their corresponding amines and alcohols is described. Advantageously, this catalytic protocol works under additive-free conditions and is compatible with the presence of aromatic rings, which are fully retained in the final products. This hydrogenative C–N bond cleavage methodology is catalyzed by a Pd-doped In2O3 catalyst prepared by a microwave hydrothermal-assisted method followed by calcination. This catalyst displays highly dispersed Pd2+ ionic species in the oxide matrix of In2O3 that have appeared to be essential for its high catalytic performance.