Nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (nanozymes): next-generation artificial enzymes (II)†
Nanozymes are nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013, 42, 6060–6093). They have been developed to address the limitations of natural enzymes and conventional artificial enzymes. Along with the significant advances in nanotechnology, biotechnology, catalysis science, and computational design, great progress has been achieved in the field of nanozymes since the publication of the above-mentioned comprehensive review in 2013. To highlight these achievements, this review first discusses the types of nanozymes and their representative nanomaterials, together with the corresponding catalytic mechanisms whenever available. Then, it summarizes various strategies for modulating the activity and selectivity of nanozymes. After that, the broad applications from biomedical analysis and imaging to theranostics and environmental protection are covered. Finally, the current challenges faced by nanozymes are outlined and the future directions for advancing nanozyme research are suggested. The current review can help researchers know well the current status of nanozymes and may catalyze breakthroughs in this field.