Conductive diamond: synthesis, properties, and electrochemical applications
Conductive diamond possesses unique features as compared to other solid electrodes, such as a wide electrochemical potential window, a low and stable background current, relatively rapid rates of electron-transfer for soluble redox systems without conventional pretreatment, long-term responses, stability, biocompatibility, and a rich surface chemistry. Conductive diamond microcrystalline and nanocrystalline films, structures and particles have been prepared using a variety of approaches. Given these highly desirable attributes, conductive diamond has found extensive use as an enabling electrode across a variety of fields encompassing chemical and biochemical sensing, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, and energy storage and conversion. This review provides an overview of the fundamental properties and highlights recent progress and achievements in the growth of boron-doped (metal-like) and nitrogen and phosphorus-doped (semi-conducting) diamond and hydrogen-terminated undoped diamond electrodes. Applications in electroanalysis, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis electrocatalysis, and electrochemical energy storage are also discussed. Diamond electrochemical devices utilizing micro-scale, ultramicro-scale, and nano-scale electrodes as well as their counterpart arrays are viewed. The challenges and future research directions of conductive diamond are discussed and outlined. This review will be important and informative for chemists, biochemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers engaged in the use of these novel forms of carbon.