A biocomputing platform with electrochemical and fluorescent signal outputs based on multi-sensitive copolymer film electrodes with entrapped Au nanoclusters and tetraphenylethene and electrocatalysis of NADH
In this work, poly(N,N′-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer films were polymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with a facile one-step method, and Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) and tetraphenylethene (TPE) were synchronously embedded in the films, designated as P(DMA-co-NIPA)/AuNCs/TPE. Ferrocene dicarboxylic acid (FDA), an electroactive probe in solution displayed invertible pH- and SO42–-sensitive on-off cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors at the film electrodes. The electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) mediated by FDA in solution could substantially amplify the CV response difference between the on and off states. Moreover, the two fluorescence emission (FL) signals from TPE constituent at 450 nm and AuNCs component at 660 nm in the films also demonstrated SO42–- and pH-sensitive behaviors. Based on the aforesaid results, a 4-input/9-output biomolecular logic circuit was constructed with pH, Na2SO4, FDA and NADH as the inputs, and the CV signals and the FL responses at 450 and 660 nm at different levels as the outputs. Additionally, some functional non-Boolean devices were elaborately designed on the identical platform, including a 1-to-2 decoder, a 2-to-1 encoder, a 1-to-2 demultiplexer and different types of keypad locks. This work combined the copolymer films, bioelectrocatalysis, and fluorescence together so that more complicated biocomputing systems could be established. This work may pave a new way to develop advanced and sophisticated biocomputing logic circuits and functional devices in the future.