Molecular p-doping in organic liquid crystalline semiconductors: influence of the charge transfer complex on the properties of mesophase and bulk charge transport
We explore the molecular nature of doping in organic semiconductors (OSCs) by employing a liquid crystalline organic semiconductor based on phenyl naphthalene as a model. The mesophase nature of composites that include a charge transfer complex (CTC) between the OSC (8-PNP-O12) and an electron acceptor (F4TCNQ) has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray scattering. Optical and vibrational spectroscopies allow us to explore the characteristics and the amount of charge transfer in the CTC and expose some properties that appear only in the complexed state. We have found this system to exhibit partial charge transfer, which manifests itself in all the phase states of the host 8-PNP-O12, as well as in solution. Due to the lowering of molecular symmetry as a result of the charge transfer, one of the previously IR-only vibrational bands of the nitrile group is found to be now active in the Raman spectrum. We have also made an attempt to further investigate the influence of dopant introduction on the bulk hole mobility of 8-PNP-O12. It is found that the presence of the CTC promotes the hole transport in the Smectic B mesophase, however it seems to have a somewhat negative influence in the less ordered smectic A mesophase. This work aims to establish the link between the inevitable change of molecular geometry that occurs on charge transfer with the results obtained by spectroscopic techniques and electronic charge carrier mobility measurements.