Tuning the liquid-phase exfoliation of arsenic nanosheets by the interaction with various solvents
The interaction between monolayer arsenene and fourteen kinds of solvents is found to be correlated with extent of charge transfer from the arsenene to solvents by density functional theory calculations. Among them, three kinds of aprotic solvents (cyclohexane, tetrahydrofuran and chloroform), representing different adsorbability with arsenene, were selected to exfoliate bulk arsenic crystals into nanosheets in experiments. The as-prepared concentrations of the three dispersions vary monotonically with the calculated adsorption energies and charge transfer per contact area. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations and size distributions analyses manifested that the lateral size distributions of exfoliated arsenic nanosheets were ranged from 100 nm to 1050 nm. This strategy shows the potential usage in liquid-phase exfoliation of multi-layer materials by interaction effects between solvents and surface of materials.