New insights about the monomer and homodimer structures of the human AOX1†
Human aldehyde oxidase (hAOX1) is a molybdenum dependent enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of various compounds either endogenous or xenobiotics. Due to its promiscuity, hAOX1 plays a major role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and therefore has gathered a lot of attention from the scientific community and, particularly, from the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, homology modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the structure of the monomer and dimer of human AOX. The results with the monomer of hAOX1 allowed to shed some light on the role played by thioridazine and two malonate ions that are co-crystalized in the recent X-ray structure of hAOX1. The results show that these molecules endorse several conformational rearrangements in the binding pocket of the enzyme and these changes have an impact in the active site topology as well as in the stability of the substrate (phthalazine). The results show that the presence of both molecules open two gates located at the entrance of the binding pocket, from which results the flooding of the active site. They also endorse several modifications in the shape of the binding pocket (namely the position of Lys893) that, together with the presence of the solvent molecules, favour the release of the substrate to the solvent. Further insights were also obtained with the assembled homodimer of hAOX1. The allosteric inhibitor (THI) binds closely to the region where the dimerization of both monomers occur. These findings suggest that THI can interfere with protein dimerization.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Challenges in spectroscopy: accuracy vs interpretation from isolated molecules to condensed phases