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Issue 20, 2019
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Structural design of alkali-metal titanates: electrochemical growth of KxTi8O16, Na2+xTi6O13, and Li2+xTi3O7 single crystals with one-dimensional tunnel structures

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Abstract

Single crystals of lithium, sodium, and potassium titanates were grown with high-temperature constant-voltage electrolysis of TiO2 with A2MoO4 (A = Li, Na, and K) as fluxes. Using the potassium-containing flux, needle-like crystals of hollandite-type KxTi8O16 with a maximum length of ∼1 mm were successfully obtained. On the other hand, needle-like crystals of Na2+xTi6O13 and ramsdellite-type Li2+xTi3O7 with a maximum length of ∼3 mm were grown when the sodium- and lithium-containing fluxes were employed, respectively. This report demonstrates that the electrochemical crystal growth is favorable to obtain titanates with various one-dimensional tunnel structures upon varying the alkali-metal elements. The diversity in structural types of the resultant single crystals is reasonably explained in terms of the ionic size of the alkali metals incorporated.

Graphical abstract: Structural design of alkali-metal titanates: electrochemical growth of KxTi8O16, Na2+xTi6O13, and Li2+xTi3O7 single crystals with one-dimensional tunnel structures

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Article information


Submitted
12 Mar 2019
Accepted
23 Apr 2019
First published
23 Apr 2019

CrystEngComm, 2019,21, 3223-3231
Article type
Paper

Structural design of alkali-metal titanates: electrochemical growth of KxTi8O16, Na2+xTi6O13, and Li2+xTi3O7 single crystals with one-dimensional tunnel structures

Y. Chiba, D. Koizumi, M. Saito and T. Motohashi, CrystEngComm, 2019, 21, 3223
DOI: 10.1039/C9CE00362B

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