The topography of fibrous scaffolds modulates the paracrine function of Ad-MSCs in the regeneration of skin tissues
Injuries to the skin are common in daily life, and a certain type or size of defect is not easily restored using conventional dressings or naturally. The repair of these defects requires restoration of function in regenerated tissues. In this study, a tissue engineered skin was designed and fabricated using a bio-3D printing system. Polycaprolactone and bacterial cellulose comprised the scaffold, due to their excellent biocompatibility and multifunctionality. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) were seeded onto the scaffold to functionalize it as an artificial skin. The finished artificial skin had mechanical properties similar to that of natural skin, and its fibrous structure providing a unique micro-environment that could regulate the paracrine function of the Ad-MSCs. This effect could be greatly increased by changes in the characteristics of the biomaterials. The artificial skin exhibited high biological activity, strong induction of cell recruitment, migration, growth and up-regulation of gene expression of relevant factors, resulting in excellent wound healing characteristics. This study clarified novel design aspects of cell-material interactions in which the topographical characteristics of materials can be further developed to establish cell signaling or communication networks that take advantage of the paracrine actions of Ad-MSCs to promote specific tissue regeneration or repair characteristics.