Assessment of magnesium-based biomaterials: from bench to clinic
Despite the high potential of biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys as a new generation of biomaterials for orthopaedic and cardiovascular implantation, their high corrosion rate in body fluid limits their suitability for clinical applications. Extensive research has been performed to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-based biomaterials. Researchers have also been working to develop new testing and assessment techniques to evaluate the corrosion performance and other in vitro and in vivo properties of their modified Mg alloys. The objective of this review is to present the principles and operation procedures of commonly used standard methods for assessment of Mg-based biomaterials from bench to clinic. The pros and cons of each of these methods are discussed, together with factors for consideration to choose the right methodology. This review also presents the current state and challenges in understanding the testing of Mg-based biomaterials.