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Issue 7, 2019
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An advanced microwave-assisted extraction-low density solvent based on a sensitive microextraction method coupled with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried chicken nuggets

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Abstract

Nowadays, consumption of chicken nuggets as a tasty fast food has become remarkable. Therefore, the safety and quality of this type of food is critical. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a type of toxic compound formed during the cooking process for meat-based fast food such as nuggets. These substances have detrimental effects on human health and are known to cause chronic diseases such as cancer. In this study, the analysis of 4 types of important HAAs, namely, 2-amino-3‚8-dimethylimidazo[4‚5-f]quinolone (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4‚5-b] pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), were performed with an efficient microwave-assisted extraction-low-density solvent based on a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (MAE-LDS-DLLME), followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The main parameters affecting microextraction step were selected. Central composite design (CCD) was established to achieve the optimal value for each parameter. The concentration range of 5–500 ng g−1 for HAAs was obtained with a coefficient determination higher than 0.991. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) was between 5.9 and 7.9%. The limit of detection (LOD) was between 2.9 and 4.0 ng g−1. The recovery range was 90–97% and the enrichment factor (EF) was obtained in the range of 165 and 210. The proposed technique is highly sensitive, selective, quick, and easy, and has high capability for removing sample matrix interferences. Different values of HAAs from 284 to 6416 ng g−1 were determined in several real samples. The highest and the lowest average concentration of HAAs (∑4 HAAs) were 8714 ng g−1 and 1657 ng g−1, respectively. PhIP was detected in all samples in the range of 284–1882 ng g−1.

Graphical abstract: An advanced microwave-assisted extraction-low density solvent based on a sensitive microextraction method coupled with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried chicken nuggets

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 Dec 2018, accepted on 14 Jan 2019 and first published on 15 Jan 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8AY02834F
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2019,11, 942-949

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    An advanced microwave-assisted extraction-low density solvent based on a sensitive microextraction method coupled with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried chicken nuggets

    F. Barzegar, N. Omidi, M. Kamankesh, A. Mohammadi, R. Ferdowsi and S. Jazaeri, Anal. Methods, 2019, 11, 942
    DOI: 10.1039/C8AY02834F

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