Low fouling strategies for electrochemical biosensors targeting disease biomarkers
Over the past few years, different biomarkers related to various disease states have been identified, and the assay of these disease biomarkers, which can reveal the health status and stages of diseases, has received increasing attention. A broad range of analytical techniques have been applied to the detection of these biomarkers, with electrochemical analysis becoming one of the most promising approaches due to high sensitivity, accuracy, wide measurement range and low-cost and portable instrumentation requirements. However, one of the biggest challenges in this field relates to the operation of electrochemical sensors in biological media, as biofouling deleteriously affects the functioning of the electrochemical sensing interface when exposed to biological fluid. In this mini review, recent trends in the development of low fouling electrochemical biosensors based on different antifouling materials are summarized and discussed. Also, an outlook on the opportunities and challenges with regard to future development of low fouling electrochemical biosensors capable of assaying biomarkers in clinical samples is presented.