Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectral discrimination in human bodily fluids of oesophageal transformation to adenocarcinoma†
Diagnostic tools for the detection of early-stage oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) are urgently needed. Our aim was to develop an accurate and inexpensive method using biofluids (plasma, serum, saliva or urine) for detecting oesophageal stages through to OAC (squamous; inflammatory; Barrett's; low-grade dysplasia; high-grade dysplasia; OAC) using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with variable selection methods, with successive projections or genetic algorithms (GA) combined with quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) were employed to identify spectral biomarkers in biofluids for accurate diagnosis in a hospital setting of different stages through to OAC. Quality metrics (Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specificity and F-score) and biomarkers of disease were computed for each model. For plasma, GA-QDA models using 15 wavenumbers achieved 100% classification for four classes. For saliva, PCA-QDA models achieved 100% for the inflammatory stage and high-quality metrics for other classes. For serum, GA-QDA models achieved 100% performance for the OAC stage using 13 wavenumbers. For urine, PCA-QDA models achieved 100% performance for all classes. Selected wavenumbers using a Student's t-test (95% confidence interval) identified a differentiation of the stages on each biofluid: plasma (929 cm−1 to 1431 cm−1, associated with DNA/RNA and proteins); saliva (1000 cm−1 to 1150 cm−1, associated with DNA/RNA region); serum (1435 cm−1 to 1573 cm−1, associated with methyl groups of proteins and Amide II absorption); and, urine (1681 cm−1 to 1777 cm−1, associated with a high frequency vibration of an antiparallel β-sheet of Amide I and stretching vibration of lipids). Our methods have demonstrated excellent efficacy for a rapid, cost-effective method of diagnosis for specific stages to OAC. These findings suggest a potential diagnostic tool for oesophageal cancer and could be translated into clinical practice.