A novel electrochemical sensor based on microporous polymeric nanospheres for measuring peroxynitrite anion released by living cells and studying the synergistic effect of antioxidants†
Peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−) is a crucial reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which has aroused immense research interest in the biological and biomedical fields because aberrant expression levels of ONOO− are related to many diseases. In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor is described for the detection of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−) released from living cells. It is constructed with a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) decorated with a nanocomposite (CTS-MPNS) synthesized from chitosan (CTS) functionalized microporous polymeric nanospheres (MPNS). The prepared CTS-MPNS/GCE sensor shows a supernormal manifestation in measuring ONOO− in a wide range of concentrations from 3.83 nM to 0.104 mM, and the detection limit is as low as 1.28 nM (S/N = 3), which makes it possible to detect trace amounts of ONOO− released from U87 cells. Significantly, the synergistic effect of different antioxidants on scavenging ONOO− in biological systems is further studied by an electrochemical method for the first time, which provides an efficient strategy for protecting cells against oxidative stress. The developed platform and the efficient strategy may pave the way for their future applications in the field of biomedicine and the treatment of cancer diseases.