Microscale solid-phase microextraction probe for in situ analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances and lipids in biological tissues using mass spectrometry
Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and lipids in biological tissues is of importance, especially for in situ and microscale analysis, because it provides us significant information to understand the relevance of content, composition, and distribution of lipids to the bioaccumulation of PFCs as well as lipid metabolism affected by the biotoxicity of PFCs. In this study, we reported the development of a novel ambient mass spectrometry method for rapid, in situ, and microscale analysis of PFASs and lipids simultaneously in biological tissues for investigation of their biological correlation. A microscale solid-phase microextraction (SPME) probe with a probe-end diameter of several-µm was employed for in situ and microscale sampling of biological tissues after PFASs exposure. The SPME probe showed a desirable capacity for enrichment of PFASs and lipid species simultaneously. After sampling and extraction, the loaded SPME probe was directly applied for nanoESI-MS analysis under ambient and open-air conditions. A high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer operated with field-induced mode was introduced to record mass spectra using fast polarity switching between positive and negative ion detection. Most of lipid species were recorded in positive ion mass spectrum, and PFASs were recorded in negative ion mass spectrum. By using the developed method, in situ analysis of PFASs and lipids in the muscle, brain, heart, kidney, liver, and intestine of zebrafish was realized. In addition, simultaneously imaging PFASs and lipids in individual Daphnia magna was successfully achieved for investigation of their biological correlation.