Novel approaches for biomolecules immobilization in microscale systems
Biomolecule-immobilized microscale systems present a promising potential in analysis field based on their reduced reagents consumption, improved analysis speed, automated processing, and high throughput. To increase biomolecules binding capacity, improve biomolecules activity and stability, enhance renewability, and develop easy-to-operate procedures, novel immobilization approaches have attracted tremendous attention recently. In this review, a variety of methods employed in preparing state-of-the-art DNA-, protein-, and polysaccharide-immobilized microscale systems are summarized. We focus on highlighting the merits of applying click reaction, nanomaterials-based strategy, encapsulation, layer-by-layer assembly, and reversible immobilization strategy for improving biomolecule-immobilized microscale systems performance. Moreover, the utilization of innovative biomolecule-immobilized microscale systems for biosensing, affinity chromatography separation, bioreaction, enantioseparation are also discussed.