Ultrasound combined with manganese-oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon for extraction and pre-concentration of thymol and carvacrol in methanolic extracts of Thymus daenensis, Salvia officinalis, Stachys pilifera, Satureja khuzistanica, and mentha, and water samples†
A dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DMSPE) technique was developed using manganese-oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Mn3O4-NPs-AC) as an effective sorbent combined with ultrasound for the extraction and determination of a trace amount of thymol and carvacrol in methanolic extracts of Thymus daenensis, Salvia officinalis, Stachys pilifera, Satureja khuzistanica and mentha, and water samples. Thymol and carvacrol phenolic compounds were extracted from real samples using acetonitrile (ACN) as the desorption solvent. Using central composite design (CCD), the effects of pH, ionic strength (NaCl), nano-sorbent mass, contact time, and desorption volume were investigated. Additionally, based on five-level variables, response surface methodology was used to determine the individual and interactive effects between factors on the process. The optimized extraction conditions included 12 mg of Mn3O4-NPs-AC as the sorbent, 300 μL of ACN as the desorption solvent, pH 3.0, 0.5 w/v% of NaCl, and 4.5 min sonication time. Under the optimized conditions, for all the samples, the limits of detection were 0.054–0.104 ng mL−1 and the limits of quantification were 0.178–0.345 ng mL−1. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.985, i.e. in the range of 0.4–6000 ng mL−1. To validate the effects of the matrix, the recovery, reproducibility, repeatability, and overall uncertainty were calculated for the five methanolic extracts, at 50, 100, and 500 ng mL−1. The recovery ranged between 94.5% and 109.0% with a relative standard deviation of <8.0% for the repeatability and reproducibility precision, which strongly supports the favorable repeatability and reproducibility of the method. The presented method also has the excellent sorbent features of NPs for the sorption of the analyte, which is due to the use of ultrasound for dispersion of the material in the sample matrix.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Analytical Nanoscience