Subsecond detection of guanosine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry†
Guanosine is an important neuromodulator and neuroprotector in the brain and is involved in many pathological conditions, including ischemia and neuroinflammation. Traditional methods to detect guanosine in the brain, like HPLC, offer low limits of detection and are robust; however, subsecond detection is not possible. Here, we present a method for detecting rapid fluctuations of guanosine concentration in real-time using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. The optimized waveform scanned from −0.4 V to 1.3 V and back at a rate of 400 V s−1 and application frequency of 10 Hz. Potential limits were chosen to increase selectivity of guanosine over the structurally similar interferent adenosine. Two oxidation peaks were detected with the optimized waveform: the primary oxidation reaction occurred at 1.3 V and the secondary oxidation at 0.8 V. Guanosine detection was stable over time with a limit of detection of 30 ± 10 nM, which permits its use to monitor low nanomolar fluctuations in the brain. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method for in-tissue detection, guanosine was exogenously applied and detected within live rat brain slices. This paper demonstrates the first characterization of guanosine using FSCV, and will be a valuable method for measuring signaling dynamics during guanosine neuromodulation and protection.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Analyst Emerging Investigators