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Issue 25, 2019
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SnSb vs. Sn: improving the performance of Sn-based anodes for K-ion batteries by synergetic alloying with Sb

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Abstract

The electrochemical mechanism and performance of Sn-based electrodes are thoroughly studied in K-ion batteries. Low temperature ex situ119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with first principles calculations provides a clear description of the electrochemical mechanism, identifying the formation of poorly crystalline and/or nanosized KSn at the end of the potassiation of β-Sn. During depotassiation, the formation of the intermediate phase K4Sn9 is established on the basis of DFT and Mössbauer spectroscopy. When tin is associated with antimony in SnSb, a different potassiation path is revealed for tin, with a huge impact on the overall performance. In fact, while the presence of antimony suppresses completely the decomposition of the electrolyte caused by tin particles, the new electrochemical potassiation/depotassiation mechanism drastically reduces the modifications in the local environment and the electrode morphology as evidenced by ex situ and post-mortem SEM analyses. Thanks to the positive impact of the association of tin with antimony, which reduces electrode degradation, a stable high specific capacity of more than 300 mA h g−1 can be achieved for Sn-based negative electrodes in K-ion batteries.

Graphical abstract: SnSb vs. Sn: improving the performance of Sn-based anodes for K-ion batteries by synergetic alloying with Sb

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Apr 2019
Accepted
24 May 2019
First published
28 May 2019

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019,7, 15262-15270
Article type
Paper

SnSb vs. Sn: improving the performance of Sn-based anodes for K-ion batteries by synergetic alloying with Sb

V. Gabaudan, R. Berthelot, M. T. Sougrati, P. Lippens, L. Monconduit and L. Stievano, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, 7, 15262
DOI: 10.1039/C9TA03760H

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