In situ growth of perovskite stacking layers for high-efficiency carbon-based hole conductor free perovskite solar cells
The interfacial properties between a perovskite layer and carbon electrode are critical for the photovoltaic performance of carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a methylammonium lead mixed halide (MAPbIxBr3−x) perovskite layer is in situ grown on the top of a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite layer forming a MAPbI3/MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking structure (PSS) to improve the interfacial properties at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface. The charge carrier dynamics in both the perovskite and the PSC device induced by the MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking layer are studied using extensive characterization. The charge interfacial recombination at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface is significantly diminished using the PSS within the PSC, resulting in largely improved charge extraction and therefore high photovoltaic performance. The PSS-based PSC shows a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.2% (increased by 43% compared with that of a conventional MAPbI3-based PSC), which is among the highest efficiencies of carbon electrode-based hole conductor free PSCs. Meanwhile, the PSS-based PSC also exhibits good stability under both continuous illumination and storage under dark conditions. This work may provide a new avenue to fine tune the interfacial properties of carbon electrode-based PSCs for further improving their photovoltaic performance.