Rational design and kinetics study of flexible sodium-ion full batteries based on binder-free composite film electrodes †
A high-performance flexible sodium-ion full battery (FSIFB) is developed by using binder-free composite film (BFCF) electrodes without using conductive carbon and current collectors. Hard carbon fibers decorated with different electrochemical active materials are used as the supporting framework and 3D conductive network of FSIFBs for the first time. Different pre-sodiated anodes and the electrolyte additives are designed for well-matched FSIFBs. Using a porous Na3V2(PO4)3 coated hard carbon fiber film with a mass loading of 2.34 mg cm−2 as the cathode and a pre-sodiated graphene/SiC/hard carbon fiber film with a mass loading of 1.50 mg cm−2 as the anode, an optimized FSIFB is designed. It delivers high output voltage (3.34 V), high energy density (234.1 W h kg−1 at a high-current rate of 0.5 A g−1), ultralong cyclability (over 2905 cycles at 0.5 A g−1 and 1000 cycles at 5 A g−1), and high coulombic efficiency (approaching 100%), which surpasses those of all FSIFBs reported so far. Furthermore, this FSIFB still maintains good electrochemical attributes even at serious bending states in water. The models of the solid electrolyte interphase behavior on the surface of electrodes in the FSIFB are studied by using EIS, and a reaction mechanism and an equivalent electrical circuit are proposed. We also provide the videos of the preparation process for a pouch-type FSIFB to demonstrate its simple operability and potential applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles