Particle-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations of 3-dimensional active turbulence†
Collective behaviour in suspensions of microswimmers is often dominated by the impact of long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions. These phenomena include active turbulence, where suspensions of pusher bacteria at sufficient densities exhibit large-scale, chaotic flows. To study this collective phenomenon, we use large-scale (up to N = 3 × 106) particle-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations of model microswimmers described by extended stresslets. Such system sizes enable us to obtain quantitative information about both the transition to active turbulence and characteristic features of the turbulent state itself. In the dilute limit, we test analytical predictions for a number of static and dynamic properties against our simulation results. For higher swimmer densities, where swimmer-swimmer interactions become significant, we numerically show that the length- and timescales of the turbulent flows increase steeply near the predicted finite-system transition density.