Retention of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds in high polarity solvents in binaphthalene–benzamide derivatives: extensive NMR studies†
Advanced multidimensional NMR techniques have been employed to investigate the intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HBs) in a series of N,N′-([1,1′-binaphthalene]-2,2′-diyl)bis(benzamide) derivatives, with the site-specific substitution of different functional groups. The existence of intramolecular HBs and the elimination of any molecular aggregation and possible intermolecular HBs are ascertained by various experimental NMR techniques, including solvent polarity dependent modifications of HB strengths. In the fluorine substituted derivative, direct evidence for the engagement of organic fluorine in HB is obtained by the detection of heteronuclear through-space correlation and the coupling between two NMR active nuclei where the transmission of spin polarization is mediated through HBs (1hJFH). The extent of reduction in the strength of 1hJFH on dilution with high polarity solvents directly provided the qualitative measure of HB strength. The HB, although becoming weakened, does not get nullified even in pure high polarity solvent, which is attributed to the structural constraints. The rate of exchange of a labile hydrogen atom with the deuterium of the solvent permitted the measurement of their half-lives, that are correlated to the relative strengths of HBs. The experimental NMR findings are further validated by XRD and DFT-based theoretical computations, such as, NCI and QTAIM.