Effects of linker and liposome anchoring on lactose-functionalized glycomacromolecules as multivalent ligands for binding galectin-3†
In this work, we present a bottom-up approach for the synthesis of lactose-functionalized glycomacromolecules and glycofunctionalized liposomes and apply these compounds to investigate their effects of multivalent presentation on binding to galectin-3. Step-wise assembly of tailor-made building blocks on solid supports was used to synthesize a series of oligo(amidoamine) scaffolds that were further conjugated to lactose via copper catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Binding studies with galectin-3 revealed affinities in the micromolar range that increased with increasing carbohydrate valency, and decreased with increasing size and linker flexibility. To further explore their multivalency, selected glycomacromolecules were conjugated to lipids and used in liposomal formulations. Binding studies show a further increase in binding in nanomolar ranges in dependence of both ligand structure and liposomal presentation, demonstrating the power of combining the two approaches.