Preparation of a novel curcumin nanoemulsion by ultrasonication and its comparative effects in wound healing and the treatment of inflammation
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a curcumin (Cur) nanoemulsion (NE) and enhance transdermal drug delivery. The comparative effects of Cur-NE were evaluated in terms of wound healing and anti-inflammatory action. Clove oil (oil), Tween-80 (surfactant), and PEG-400 (co-surfactant) were selected on the basis of their solubility and maximum nanoemulsion region. An aqueous micro-titration method with high-energy ultrasonication was used for the preparation of Cur-NE. This method was optimized to find the best NE, followed by a five-factor, three-level, central composite design. % oil, % Smix, ultrasonication time (min), ultrasonication intensity (%), and temperature (°C) were selected and optimized as independent variables. The optimized NE had parameters of 5.0% oil, 10% Smix, ultrasonication time (10 min), 40% ultrasonication intensity and 50 °C temperature, which were applied as independent and dependent variables. On the basis of experimental data of the dependent variables, we calculated a hydrodynamic diameter of 93.64 ± 6.48 nm, transmittance of 98.64 ± 0.37%, and PDI of 0.263 ± 0.021. TEM and SEM results revealed the smooth and spherical shape of the particles in the NE, with a zeta potential of −11.67 ± 0.11, refractive index of 1.71 ± 0.034, viscosity of 37 ± 7 cp, pH of 7.4 ± 0.07, and drug content of 98.11 ± 0.16% for the optimized Cur-NE. Cur-NE optimization with clove oil, Tween-80, and PEG-400 might be useful for enhancing the skin permeation of Cur. In conclusion, Cur-NE played a significant role in wound healing and exhibited anti-inflammatory effects, demonstrating its potential as a nanoformulation for safe and nontoxic transdermal delivery.