Noninvasive diagnostic methods for diabetes mellitus from tear fluid†
Diabetes mellitus and prolonged hyperglycemia can cause diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy arises from damage to retinal vessels and, in its final stages, causes blindness. The early stages are often asymptomatic and although regular screening of diabetic patients is recommended, the beginning of diabetic retinopathy is insufficiently detected. The diagnostic potential of fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy as the untraditional methods for diabetes mellitus was investigated using tear fluid. In our pilot study the structural changes of tear fluid of patients with diabetes mellitus after insulin and oral antidiabetic drug treatment was compared with healthy subjects. The results of analysis, infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed structural changes in tear fluid of patients in comparison with the tear fluid of healthy subjects. Using new experimental laboratory methods in future could contribute to an improvement in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other selected ocular diseases using tear fluid.